- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Every organization performs its task with the help of resources from men, machine, materials and money. Other resources are non-living except manpower which is a live generating resource. Manpower utilizes other resources and gives output. If manpower is not available then other resources are useless and cannot produce anything. Out of all the factors of production, manpower has the highest priority and is the most significant factor of production and plays a pivotal role in the areas of productivity and quality.
Though lack of attention to the other factors may result in reduction of profitability to some extent, lack of attention to human resource will be very disastrous. In a country where human resource is abundant, it is a pity that they remain under-utilized. Technology alone, however, cannot bring about desired change in economic performance of the country unless human potential is fully utilized for production. Sheldon (1923) noted “No industry can be rendered efficient so long as the basic fact remains unrecognized that is human.” The people at work comprise a large number of individuals of different sex, age, socio-religious group and different educational or literacy standards. These individuals in their working place exhibit not only similar behavioral patterns and characteristics to a certain degree but also show much dissimilarity.
The human resource is critical and difficult to manage. It is because human behaviour is highly unpredictable. It differs not only from individual to individual but often on the part of same individual at different points of time. In spite of biological and cultural similarities, human beings not only differ in their appearance but also in their capabilities based on their background, training and experience. Therefore, there is need for management of any organization to fashion out the best method of handling Personnel/Human resources.
Management is the process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through people. The management process includes Planning, Organizing, Leading and controlling activities that take place to accomplish the goal. Staff management which is a branch of management performs the same functions towards achieving the desired goal of the establishment. Different terms are used for staff management. The different terms are labour management, labour administration, labour management relations, employee-employer relations, staff administration, human assets management, Personnel/Human resources management etc. In simple sense, Personnel/Human resources management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organization, individual and the society (Manuguru, 2010).
Staff Management is not a new trend in large corporations especially in the banking and telecommunication industries where detailed staff workforce exists. The Government parastatal is no exception as it is very necessary to improve on the Staff documentation system through a computerized means for easy access to detailed and well documented Staff records.
According to Drucker (1997) “it is not technology, but the art of human and humane-management” which executives of 21st century see as a growing challenge.” Likewise, Smith and Kelly (1997) mentioned that “future economic and strategic advantage will be with the organizations that can most effectively attract, develop and retain a diverse group of the best and the talented people in the market place”.
Generally, in order to attain the targeted profitability and survival results, and to keep up the competitive advantage, firms are responsible to manage the resources accordingly. There are three resource categories available to the firm including physical, organizational and Personnel/Human resources. In his discussion about gaining competitive advantage in global arena, Porter (1990) mentioned that most critical of all the activities is managing the human resource. But many authors have criticized a lot the belief of taking Personnel/Human resources as a way to gain competitive advantage in domestic and international marketplaces.
Greer (1995) emphasized the importance of human resource as a source of gaining competitive edge for the organizations. It is strongly perceived that highly developed skills set of employees, unique organizational culture and management procedures and systems can result in distinctive competencies for the organization, as opposed to traditional importance given to movable resources e.g. equipment. Also, it is highly acknowledged that high quality workforce help the organization achieve the competitive advantage based on their market responsive behavior, high quality products and services, unique in products and technological innovations for better performance.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STUDY
This will contain the brief history of the case study
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current method of Management Information System has proven to be problematic in government institutions leading to several setbacks. The problems exist in the following ways:
- Improper documentation of staff movement with respect to Leave and permissions;
- Indiscriminate abuse of staff work-flow targeted at un-organized staff duties or schedule of duties;
- Inaccurate documentation of staff population at each point in time.
- Lack of clarity in the chain of command according to organizational order of hierarchy.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This project will be beneficial to the Office of the registrar for effective monitoring of staff duties, employment and retirement status, Leave and permission status, organizational structure according to hierarchy, etc. It will also help to reduce redundancy in the Staff records and provide an enabling environment to track staff management issues whenever they arise.
- AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to design a Computerized Staff Management System so as to automate processes and improve efficiency for the institution. To achieve this, the following objectives will be considered:
- To provide a database for easy and well organized record keeping;
- Search engine are fully optimized to ensured quick and prompt search of any Staff record at any time;
- Generating of reports are achieved to detect or inform the Administrators on various Staff activities at any point in time;
- Password Security is applied to ensure that only authorized staff can access the Staff records.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Every project is carried out to achieve a set of goals with some conditions keeping in mind that it should be easy to use, feasible and user friendly. The scope of this project will cover only staff record management of federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda.
1.7. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY
The proposed research work will be organized as follows: Chapter one will presents the general introduction of the research study. Chapter two will be dedicated to the literature review about automatic plate number identification system, mobile devices, types of mobile devices, mobile devices operating system and types of mobile devices operating system. A brief review of related research previously carried out on the subject matter. Chapter three will analyses the methodology, the description of the existing system, the methods of data collection and the process analysis. Chapter four will presents the system analysis, the system design and the design method. Finally, Chapter five will presents the conclusion of the research work and recommendations.
The literature review comprises of the overview of fundamental concept and the review of similar works. In the review of fundamental concepts, most of the pertinent works and the fundamental theories that will be used for the success of this research will be reviewed, after which similar works are reviewed.
2.1 DEFINITION OF STAFF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEM
There are abundant definitions of staff management, staff management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of Personnel/Human resources to the end that individual organization and societal objectives are accomplished. Armstrong (2000), defines staff management thus;
- Staff management is concerned with obtaining, developing and motivating the Personnel/Human resources required by the organization to achieve its objectives.
- Developing and organization structure and climate and involving management style which will promote cooperation and commitment throughout the organization.
- Lastly ensuring that the organization meets its social and legal responsibilities towards its employees with regard to the conditions of employment.
In a book by Jamie and John (2007), Defined Staff management as part of management concerned with people at work, their positions and their relations within a particular organization.
According to Unamka and Ewurum (1995), stated that staff management is the recruitment, selection, development and motivation of human beings who work for a firm or corporation.
Microsoft Encarta (2008) defines staff management as a part of management concerned with people at work and their relations within a firm. The main functions of the staff manager usually include staff recruitment, training, and welfare. The term staff management is somewhat misleading in that it is usually line managers who manage the work force, while staff managers provide a mainly supportive and advisory service.
Edward (2005) stated that the success of an organization depends on the capacities and capabilities of its staff. Unless an organization devotes enough resources on the development of its human resource, it would not get the required output from its staff. An organization’s commitment to the development of human resource has to be reflected in its policies, procedures, practices, customs and ideals.
2.2 INFORMATION SYSTEM
With cognizance to Buckingham (1998), An Information System can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Basically an Information System handles the flow and maintenance of Information that supports a business or some other operation. It contains information about significant people, places and things within the organization or in the environment surrounding it. Information is derived from meaningful interpretation of data.
A system which assembles, stores, processes, and delivers information relevant to an organization (or to a society), in such a way that the information is accessible and useful to those who wish to use it, including managers, staff, clients and citizens. An information system is a human activity (social) system, which may or may not involve the use of computer systems. Also, in addition to supporting decision-making, information systems help workers and managers to analyze complex problems, to develop new products and to integrate the various modules and departments. Moreover the ‘transmission losses inter-departmental communication are reduced considerably leading to better coordination and improved transparency (information sharing) within the organization as a whole.
2.3 FUNCTIONS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
According to Laudon and Laudon (1991), Three activities provide the information that organizations need. These activities are Input, Processing and Output. ‘Input’ consists of acquisition of the ‘raw data’, which is transformed into more meaningful packets of ‘Information’ by means of ‘Processing’. The processed information now flows to the users or activities also called as ‘Output’. The shortcomings are analyzed and the information is sent back to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate and refine the input. This is termed as ‘feedback’.
Examples of ‘Information Inputs’ would be Transactions, events which would undergo ‘processing’ in the form of sorting, listing, merging and updating resulting in ‘outputs’ such as detailed reports, lists and summaries. Another example would be in the manufacturing environment with ‘information inputs‘ such as design specs material requirements and the SOPs (standard operating procedures). These would be ‘processed‘ by the information system by modeling and simulation techniques and would result in standard production models along with the overall cost of the production process which is calculated by the information system from the knowledge base containing material costs, hourly labor costs and other indirect costs; hence, almost totally eliminating a distinct costing function in the scheme of things.
2.3.1 Functions of an information system
FIG 2.1: Functions Of An Information System
However an information system cannot just be broadly described as an Input-Process-output mechanism in vacuum. It is required to provide major organizational solutions to challenges and problems posed in the business environment. Hence a manager needs to be not just computer-literate but also have a good idea of the organizational structure and functions as a whole. This concept is illustrated in FIG 2.1.
Also, at the heart of the issue, Information systems should not be confused with information technology. They exist independent of each other and irrespective of whether they are implemented well. Information systems use computers (or Information Technology) as tools for the storing and rapid processing of information leading to analysis, decision-making and better coordination and control. Hence information technology forms the basis of modern information systems.
2.4 TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
According to Laudon (2003), the purpose of computer-based information systems is to provide managers and various categories of employees with the appropriate kind of information to help them make decisions. The six major types of information systems corresponding to each organizational level (the four levels shown in figure above) are:
2.4.1 Types of Information system
FIG 2.2: Types of Information System
- Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): serve the operational level of an organization. It is a computer-based information system that keeps track of the transactions needed to conduct business. It records day-to-day transactions such as customer orders, bills, inventory levels, and production output. It also helps to generate databases that act as the foundation for the other information systems.
- 2. Knowledge work systems (KWS) is also known as Expert systems (ES). Expert system is a set of interactive computer programs that help users solve problems that would otherwise require the assistance of a human expert. It is also known as knowledge based system (KBS).
- 3. Office automation systems (OAS) to serve the knowledge level of an organization. It is a computer-based information system intended for workers or employees of all levels which combines various technologies to reduce the manual labour required in operating in an efficient office environment.
- Decision-support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that provides a flexible tool for data analysis. It helps in predicting changes that may influence the data in the future. It simply analyzes data. It helps to analyze a wide range of problems, such as the effect of events and trends outside an organization. Like the MIS, the DSS draws on the detailed data of the transaction processing system.
- Management information systems (MIS) serve the management level of the organization. It is a computer-based information system that produces standardized reports in a summarized structured form.
- Executive support systems (ESS) serve the strategic level of an organization. It is an easy-to-use system that presents information in a very highly summarized form. It helps in developing strategic plans and decision making. It is also known as executive information system.
2.5 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
According to George (2003), A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based information system that produces standardized reports in summarized structured form. It helps to support middle managers. A management information system can also be defined as a computer-based information system that uses data recorded by a transaction processing system (TPS) as input into programs that produce routine reports as output. A MIS differ from a transaction processing system in a significant way. Whereas a transaction processing system creates databases, a MIS requires databases. Indeed, an MIS can draw from the databases of several departments. Thus, a MIS requires a database management system (DBMS) that integrates the database of the different departments. Middle managers need summary data often drawn from across different functional areas.
Inputs consist of processed transaction data such as bills, orders, and paychecks, plus other internal data. Outputs consist of summarized, structured reports; budget summaries, production schedules e.t.c. A MIS is intended principally to assist middle managers – specifically to help them with tactical decisions. It enables them to spot trends and get an overview of current business activities. Managers at this level usually receive information in the form of several kinds of reports:
- Summary reports
- Exception reports
- Periodic reports
- Demand reports
2.6 ORIGIN OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
With the changing trends of industry in the competition oriented environment of open markets, human resource management becomes a significant variable for the efficient growth of any organization. Manpower planning was the very first concept used in ancient eras and as the time went on the trends changed dramatically and the concept of manpower planning changed and turned into personal management. Today personal management is known as Human resource management.
Some of the factors or significant variables mentioned by the American writers, Terrey and
Franklin (1996), termed as six “M” of management including men, material, women, money, method and market. Out of all these, the productive management and deployment of these human and non-Personnel/Human resources is done by the living beings, men and women.
Managing human resource is a meticulous process and complex one also. According to Harzing and Ruysseveldt “A better way to understand the philosophy of human resource management demands a thorough understanding about the evolution of the concept itself from the ancestral concept of personnel management”.
The Glided Era:
Historian Page Smith examines the industrial revolution “The War between Capital and Labor.” It is stated that both labor and capital sides were indulged in war, with armed people fighting from both sides. The situation created was almost war like because of the extreme human violence and property destruction because most of the workers were civil war experts. They announced that they are ready to shoot any hiring just the way they were willing to kill Yankees or rebels. American industry captains used to view employees as raw material commodities and not humans although those captains faced difficult circumstances in their past. They hired the army personnel to deal with their labor power during all this without even caring for results of their cold and ruthless behavior.
Post–World War II (1945–1960)
In the days of war, labor movement and utilization put much influence on the enhancement of employee functions. The effectiveness of firm is greatly influenced by employee productivity and inspiration. After the war ended, the unions and associations for hum relations emphasized that employee motivation should be increased by using in addition to money, some social and psychological factors for instance, acknowledging their work, appraising their work standards. At the time of war individuals were categorized in military services, therefore systemized efforts were done to make employees work groups to provide better recruitment and selection measures and opportunities. The deepest parts of the classification included job descriptions containing details of tasks, duties, and responsibilities answering the job seekers’ questions. Appropriate compensation systems, appraisal systems were developed using these job descriptions and plans were executed.
Social Issues Era (1963–1980)
This time span observed an extraordinary increase of performing and accomplishing labor legislation in the United States, legislation that control different parts of the employment association, including the excluding prejudiced practices, provision of retirement settlement, the encouragement of work-related issues like health and safety, tax regulation, etc. As an end result, the department of Personnel/Human resources was filled with the extra accountability of legislative.
fulfillment that comprised of collecting, analyzing, and reporting huge data to legislative units. For example, in terms of making everything transparent, there was no favoritism in employment practices, the Personnel/Human resources department needed to attentively collect, evaluate, and keep data regarding all employment functions, such as recruitment, compensation, training, and benefits. It was that time when personnel department were started to be called human resource management departments. This is how HRM department came into being.
Another contributory factor was the economic prosperity that took place in almost all industrialized countries. Employee trade unions were doing fruitful negotiations for superior working conditions, such as health care and departure settlement. As a result, labor costs rose up than ever before, which forced Personnel/Human resources managers to validate increase in cost against productivity. The HR function has evolved to be protecting one from being caretaker with an increased importance of employee involvement and empowerment, and it changed the focus from maintaining employees to brining betterment for employees.
Therefore, the depth and width of HRM functions extended and thus, brought about the need for planned thinking and superior transfer of HR services.
Cost-Effectiveness Era (1980 to the Early 1990s)
United States and other international firms had given better attention on reducing costs by deploying automation and other efficiency enhancement procedures, since competition got fierce from the side of European and Asian economies. Moreover, there was an increasing insight within administration because their relative costs were being considered a crucial element of the total budget of company. Fewer companies have calculated their cost of human resource management to be as high as 80% of their total operating cost.
Era of Technological Advancement and Advent of Strategic HRM (1990 to Present)
Throughout 1990s, economic background has undergone various drastic changes like increase in the pace of globalization, high-tech progression especially Internet, Web services, and hectic rivalry.
Firms today have realized that pioneering and resourceful employees offer a sustainable viable benefit because, contrasting to other assets, intellectual capital is complex for competitors to reproduce. For that reason, the human resource management function has gained strategic level importance and viewpoint emphasized on to attract, preserve, and hold talented employees. “These developments have been directed to the formation of the HR balanced scorecard (Becker, Huselid, & Ulrich, 2001; Huselid, Becker, & Beatty, 2005), in addition to put stress on the return on investment of the HR function and its plan” (Cascio, 2000; Fitz-enz, 2000, 2002). The greater utilization of technology has altered the meaning and focus HRM, and shifted it to adding the value to the organization’s products or services, that turned HR department into the strategic partner of business. “Strategic HRM originate its theoretical impact from the resources-based analysis of the firm that delights Personnel/Human resources as a strategic asset and a competitive advantage in improving organizational performance” (Becker & Huselid, 2006).
Origin of HRM
Source: (Developing HR as an internal consulting organization, Richard M. Vosburgh, Mirage Resorts, MGM MIRAGE)
- Mile Stones of HRM:
The ups and downs of the economic situations in the previous decade had given greater importance to HR and the way it supports the overall business. In the down times of economy, the HR priorities did not favour to have the right talent but these mainly focused on cost reduction and efficiency improvement techniques.
Mile stones of HRM:
Source: (Jones and Bartlett Learning, Chapter#1, 2009)
Traditional shortfalls of Human Resource Management
Many business managers are disturbed with the establishment of HR activities if still these activities are implemented in fine and sound manner as managers are not sure how these practices are helpful in order to developing their employees in effective manner . One of the leaders said “I can realize the importance of HR activities that are related to training, management and development but I am also concerned about which abilities and capabilities are most essential rather than tactical actions”. Boudreau and Ramstad (2004) stated that HR managers can devote their more time on HR measurements techniques e.g., HR financial reporting, HR scorecards and even more focus on how can attitudes, skills, abilities and knowledge of employees can be increased to a certain level and to bring effectiveness through HR programs like training and development. However all these HR actions can influence some important decisions of business for example entrance and exit into a new market, etc. These actions can give some ways that how organizations can achieve competitive advantage through effective and more skilled labor. So here the question arises whether business investments and decisions are really measured by talent? Human resource training becomes effective only if it produces desired outcomes and profits.
According to Marchington and Wilkinson (1997), many line managers do not pay any attention to give any priority to HR activities because they already possess much workload and suffer from overload because of inappropriate work allocation from the top management.
Authors advised that with a focus on the training, development, better management of their staff, mentioned in the mission statement of the firm can make line managers change the sequence of priorities as signaled by the top management, thus they will pay attention to attaining the targets which are more assessable and valued as compared to HRM related actions.
The other important issue which is measured as a traditional shortfalls of HRM is the skills progression of the line managers. According to Boyle (1995, p.43), line managers should be ready to play people management role of their job in case if devolution of tasks happens. Many researches indicate that the training, development, management of people and developing them in a proper manner is a critical success factor for any organization (McGovern et al., 1997). Adding to this, Boyle (1995) opined that it is a challenge to develop such skills in the public sector, where managers may perceive themselves as specialists, instead of being managers. Similarly, managers also need practical and professional support from the top management and to obtain skills that they need to assume responsibilities for HRM activities (Merchant and Wilson, 1994).
- NEW ORIGIN
HRM is a modern source and through human resource activities organizations can achieve competitive advantage however different views or concepts are coming from different authors about HRM. Some proclaim that it is personnel management and some say that it is traditional personnel management.
- ABSENCE OF TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT
HRM needs the support from top management of firm that can modify the attitude and can bring fine result at times of implementing human resource processes and policies. Because of inappropriate attitude of the top management level, the work is maintained by people of personnel management department.
- INAPPROPRIATE IMPLEMENTATION
Bringing employees’ training and development needs is a way of implementing human resource management policies and processes. HR policies and practices should be designed in accordance with the needs and aspirations of people working in the company. Organization cannot achieve predetermined results without proper implementation of human resource activities and programs.
- INSUFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
Human resource management involves implementations of programs for example career planning like provision of career guidance as how employees can make their career choices, on the job training that how employees perform their current job more efficiently, development of programs that are useful in their future job tasks, counseling, etc.
- INSUFFICIENT INFORMATION
Some organizations are unable to have proper information about their employees and that is how the data base system does not properly implement. Well before implementing the process of human resource management, essential data about training and development, rightly according to the needs of the employees, should be collected and stored.
2.7 OBJECTIVES OF STAFF MANAGEMENT
According to Agwu (1999), the objectives of Staff Management are: –
(i) To satisfy the individuals that is patronizing the organization.
(ii) To make an effective contribution to the achievement of the objectives of the organization.
(iii) To make an effective contribution to the fulfillment of its social responsibilities to the objectives of staff and means of achieving them depends on the type and size of the organization, the environment in which it operates and the style with which it operates. There are no absolute principles and practices. This solely depends on the organization involved and their set out rules.
2.8 FUNCTIONS OF STAFF MANAGEMENT
Unamka and Ewurum (1995), listed the functions of staff management to include: –
- Employment which involves manpower planning, recruitment, selection and placement of staff.
(ii) Training and development.
(iii) Wages administration and
But basically the functions are almost or even the same with that stated above which are;
- Staff, management is responsible for coordinating all recruitment activities for the organization including development and processing of qualified candidates to fill open positions.
- It also provide job motivation through the issuing of leave form, promotion form, retirement form, etc to staff of the organization as at when due.
- It helps to boast staff performance through performance evaluation.
2.9 FACTORS AFFECTING STAFF MANAGEMENT
Bachelor (1985), states that the factors affecting staff management is divided into two which are external and internal factors. He says that these factors have affected the performance of staff and this has given anxiety to staff administrators in the public sector.
According to him, the external factors include: –
(i) Technological challenges
(ii) Government challenges and
(iii) Education challenges.
In the same vein, he gives the internal factors as: –
(ii) Development and
2.10 PROBLEMS OF STAFF MANAGEMENT
Anyanwu (2003), gives the problems of staff management as:-
(a) Shortage of qualified manpower
(b) Paucity of data.
(c) Attitude of workers
(d) Pressure from friends an relations
(e) Level of unemployment
2.11 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO THE STAFF MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS.
In the application of solution to these existing problems and for continued efficiency and effectiveness of the staff in contemporary work organizations, Anyanwu (2003), enumerates the following essential points which he says should be strictly adhered to but with some degree of flexibility to allow for:
- Social change
- Employment of qualified people
- Reduction of external pressure on staff managers,
- Commitment of workers to their job,
- Training to update their knowledge
- Finally, provision of the necessary tools for work and other logistic considered quite germane to productivity.
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
The system of staff management in the polytechnic involves filling of forms by the staff and filing it in a physical file. This method involve a lot of paper work which in turn becomes very expensive both in creation and in maintenance. This system also did not support easy file search, edit or organization. As one will need to go through all file in a file cabinet to locate a file. To organize files into categories is a difficult task as one will have to check each file before it can be categorized.
3.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The proposed research work will involve the use of the following methods of data collection
3.2.1 INTERVIEW METHOD
The proposed research work will employ the interview of FRSC and even other law enforcement agents
3.2.2 OBSERVATION METHOD
The proposed research work will observe how the present system works and how cars are identified using their plate numbers.
3.2.3 INTERNET METHOD
The proposed research work will further extend its spectacle of the research to the internet for further finding from online books, journals, magazine and other related research materials. The relevant research materials from the internet will be explored for more research findings.
3.3 SYSTEM DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) In structured design methodology, the whole proposed project will be structured into small, well-defined activities. SSADM will also specify the sequence and interaction of these activities. In coding aspect, programs are broken into functions and subroutines and there is always a single entry point and a single exist point into and from each function and subroutine.
3.3.1 Object Oriented Design (OOD)
In OOD, the conceptual model of the real world problem is developed. This is to test the design before having to build it.
Prototyping is the process whereby an incomplete version of the eventual program is created. This is not the eventual implementation and may be completely different from the actual software.
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